Short Title


Full Title

Changes, Crises, Reactions (Adaptation of Local Organizations of Social Services /LOSS/ in peripheral countries in Europe)

Brief Description

LOSS is an international cooperation in research established in Munich in 1993 by Bavarian, Italian, Finnish, English, American and Hungarian universities. Researchers meet every year or every two years alternately in one of the members’ country and negotiate pre-selected themes (organization of education, project sustainability, migration, dependency etc.), promoting each other’s empirical studies and university teaching job by these conferences.

Research Period


Research Type

International comparative research

Research Monitoring Body

Hungarian Scientific Research Fund

Project Supervisor

Ferenc Bódi

Research Manager

Ferenc Bódi


Fekete Attila

External Researchers

Gergely Fábián PhD
Prof. Thomas R. Lawson
Mihály Fónai
Hannu Piätilainen
Peter Herrmann



Institutional Partner

University of  Debrecen


Hungarian Scientific Research Fund, Project NO 81667

Research Summary

LOSS includes elements of human resource production and preservation on the institutional level as well as spontaneous social actions beginning with education, training and education systems, through health promotion, health care systems to the direct and indirect social support systems therefore, it is responsible for one of the most important social and economic factor: the human being.
The social services on the local level are particularly important because in the crucial first four years of the human life cycle (along with the family) one meets almost exclusively the local organizations of social services and the impact of local social actions. But in fortunate circumstances the whole of his childhood is determined primarily by the LOSS system (depending on the institutional penetration).
LOSS means the reproduction of knowledge and the community protection system built up over and over again of a society living in a particular area, which developes for generations immunity and resistance in the local societies. If LOSS works adequately, it enables local societies to endure, survive and overcome internal and external crises, finally, seizing the positive side of the crisis, to renew the society, which means it is able to initiate innovative processes.
According to our assumption, however, the lack or failure of LOSS does not protect the societies from crises. The crisis in this case can make a mess of the local society, of the community, in extreme circumstances it can start the emigration of people, the depopulation of the region (escape) or may be the basis of radical social movements (protest). (based on Hirchman) In contrast to this, strong LOSS can efficiently respond to the crisis and as a result of strong LOSS societies are more resistant and respond more quickly.
According to our assumption, an integrated society, where a higher proportion of the working-aged are embedded in the world of work (high employment) and the education system works efficiently (high level of education, low level of anomie), in crisis is able to economize the decreasing resources, explore new resources, protect the value and interest system of the society. (based on Durcheim) A society with strong LOSS can maintain solidarity, preserve and augment human resources essential for the society, even when they are not currently profitable for individuals living in the local community. (The society credits in advance the long-term investments for the individuals – eg. education, which will be returned by the new generation eg. in forms of tax. An integrated society is not only altruistic but rather rational, however, it is not purely driven by rationality, since without morale, confidence and discipline it cannot survive in the long-term.) (based on Schumacher and Fukuyama)


To download the lectures of the Crises Reform Change Conference (2013. December 9-11), click here: 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5.  To see the programs of the Conference, click: Program, Invitation